What is the meaning of totalitarian regime

Qu'elles étaient des paysages totalitaires. Corpus name: TED License: not specified. Norway doesn't have a totalitarian regime. La Norvège n'est pas un pays totalitaire.

Corpus name: OpenSubtitles Because glamour can be very totalitarian and deceptive. Puisque le glamour peut être totalitaire et trompeur. I don't like beautiful buildings built for totalitarian regimes. Je n'aime pas les constructions magnifiques construites pour des régimes totalitaires. Is it totalitarian to require readingwriting and arithmetic? Est-ce totalitaire de demander de savoir lireécrire et compter?

Homosexuality threatens all thatHence totalitarian states fear it. L'homosexualité ébranle tout çadoncun état totalitaire la craint. One reviewer for a Roman Catholic newspaper called it " totalitarian. Un critique d'un journal Catholique l'a qualifiée de " totalitaire ". Nowin my opinionCocky Locky shows definite totalitarian tendencies.

Moià mon avisCocky Locky a des tendances totalitaires. A strike which threatened to topple Une grève qui a menacé de renverser la tour de votre tyrannie totalitaire? That way we undermined the people's confidence and their totalitarian regime. Ca a porté un coup fatal à ce pays totalitaire. The totalitarian mastoid of their basic lobes prematurely extricated from the paranoiac agriculture. Le mastoïde totalitaire de leurs lobes Sowhen you thought you were a mass-murderer in a totalitarian statedespair.

C'est vrai. Superficiel est mon deuxième prénom. So Western governments are providing totalitarian governments with tools to do this against their own citizens.

Doncles gouvernements occidentaux fournissent aux gouvernements totalitaires des instruments pour faire ça contre leurs propres citoyens.

What is the meaning of totalitarian regime

Totalitarian suppression of the truth. Not only on TVbut they've got the papers too. One such free outpost C'est dans un de ces avant-postes perdus dans la région vulnérable du totalitarisme que se déroule notre histoire.

WellI thought it would be tactful to serve a communist dish with a totalitarian wine. Un plat communiste avec un vin totalitairec'est délicatnon? Everything within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state. As an example, he stated that "We must finish once and for all with the neutrality of chess. We must condemn once and for all the formula 'chess for the sake of chess', like the formula 'art for art's sake'.

We must organize shockbrigades of chess-players, and begin immediate realization of a Five-Year Plan for chess. The term 'an authoritarian regime ' denotes a state in which the single power holder - an individual ' dictator ', a committee or a junta or an otherwise small group of political elite - monopolizes political power. However, a totalitarian regime attempts to control virtually all aspects of the social life including economyeducation, art, science, private life and morals of citizens.

Compared to totalitarian systems, authoritarian systems may also leave a larger sphere for private lifelack a guiding ideology, tolerate some pluralism in social organization, lack the power to mobilize the whole population in pursuit of national goals, and exercise their power within relatively predictable limits. One of the first to use the term "totalitarianism" in the English language was the Austrian writer Franz Borkenau in his book The Communist Internationalin which he commented that it more united the Soviet and German dictatorships than divided them.

Hayek helped develop the idea of totalitarianism in his classic defense of economic competition The Road to Serfdom In his Introduction, Hayek contrasts Western Anglo values with Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitlerstating that "the conflict between the National-Socialist "Right" and the "Left" in Germany is the kind of conflict that will always arise between rival socialist factions".

He later conflates "Germany, Italy and Russia" going on to say that "the history of these countries in the years before the rise of the totalitarian system showed few features with which we are not familiar" Chapter 1, The Abandoned Road. Carr claimed that "The trend away from individualism and towards totalitarianism is everywhere unmistakable", and that Marxism-Leninism was much the most successful type of totalitarianism, as proved by Soviet industrial growth and the Red Army's role in defeating Germany.

Only the "blind and incurable" could ignore the trend towards totalitarianism, said Carr. Karl Popperin The Open Society and Its Enemies and The Poverty of Historicismarticulated an influential critique of totalitarianism: in both works, he contrasted the "open society" of liberal democracy with totalitarianism, and argued that the latter is grounded in the belief that history moves toward an immutable future in accordance with knowable laws.

In The Origins of TotalitarianismHannah Arendt argued that Nazi and State communist regimes were new forms of government, and not merely updated versions of the old tyrannies. According to Arendt, the source of the mass appeal of totalitarian regimes is their ideology, which provides a comforting, single answer to the mysteries of the past, present, and future.

For Nazismall history is the history of race struggle ; and, for Marxismall history is the history of class struggle. Once that premise is accepted, all actions of the state can be justified by appeal euphidra anticellulite gel riducente Nature or the Law of Historyjustifying their establishment of authoritarian state apparatus.

They all agree, however, that totalitarianism seeks to mobilize entire populations in support of an official state ideologyand is intolerant of activities which are not directed towards the goals of the state, entailing repression or state control of businesslabour unionschurches or political parties.

The political scientists Carl Friedrich and Zbigniew Brzezinski were primarily responsible for expanding the usage of the term in university social science and professional research, reformulating it as a paradigm for the Soviet Union as well as fascist regimes. For Friedrich and Brzezinski, the defining elements were intended to be taken as a mutually supportive organic entity composed of the following: an elaborating guiding ideology; a single mass partytypically led by a dictator ; a system of terror ; a monopoly of the means of communication and physical force; and central direction, and control of the economy through state planning.

Such regimes had initial origins in the chaos that followed in the wake of World War Iat which point the sophistication of modern weapons and communications enabled totalitarian movements to consolidate power. Eric Hoffer in his book The True Believer argues that mass movements like communismFascism and Nazism had a common trait in picturing Western democracies and their values as decadentwith people "too soft, too pleasure-loving and too selfish " to sacrifice for a higher cause, which for them implies an inner moral and biological decay.

He further claims that those movements offered the prospect of a glorious future to frustrated people, enabling them to find a refuge from the lack of personal accomplishments in their individual existence.

The individual is then assimilated into a compact collective body and "fact-proof screens from reality" are established. In the social sciencesthe approach of Friedrich and Brzezinski came under criticism from scholars who argued that the Soviet system, both as a political and as a social entity, was in fact better understood in terms of interest groupscompeting elites, or even in class terms using the concept of the nomenklatura as a vehicle for a new ruling class.

For some followers of this ' pluralist ' approach, this was evidence of the ability of the regime to adapt to include new demands. However, proponents of the totalitarian model claimed that the failure of the system to survive showed not only its inability to adapt but the mere formality of supposed popular participation. From a historical angle, the totalitarian concept has been criticized. Historians of the Nazi period inclined towards a functionalist interpretation of the Third Reich such as Martin BroszatHans Mommsen and Ian Kershaw have been very hostile or lukewarm towards the totalitarianism concept, arguing that the Nazi regime was far too disorganized to be considered as totalitarian.

In the field of Soviet history, the concept has been disparaged by the "revisionist" school, a group of mostly American left-wing historians, some of whose more prominent members are Sheila FitzpatrickJerry F.

Thurston, and J. Arch Getty. Writing inWalter Laqueur commented that the revisionists in the field of Soviet history were guilty of confusing popularity with morality, and of making highly embarrassing and not very convincing arguments against the concept of the Soviet Union as totalitarian state.

François Furet used the term " totalitarian twins " [ 23 ] in an attempt to link Stalinism [ 24 ] and Nazism. Non-political aspects of the culture and motifs of totalitarian countries have themselves often been labeled innately "totalitarian". For example, Theodore Dalrymplea British author, physician, and political commentator, has written for City Journal that brutalist structures are an expression of totalitarianism given that their grand, concrete-based design involves destroying gentler, more-human places such as gardens.

George Orwell's books Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm are famous for their dystopian depiction of totalitarian society, as is their lesser-known predecessor, We by Yevgeny Zamyatin. According to Soviet writer Fazil Iskander[ 28 ] "Under the totalitarian regime, it was as if you were forced to live in the same room with an insanely violent man".

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